Four Noble Truths (Cattāri Ariyasaccāni ):
- Dukkhaṃ Ariyasaccaṃ (The Noble Truth of Suffering),
- Dukkhasamudayo Ariyasaccaṃ (The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering),
- Dukkhanirodho Ariyasaccaṃ (The Noble Truth of the ending of Suffering),
- Dukkhanirodhagāminīpaṭipadā Ariyasaccaṃ (The Noble Truth of the ending of Suffering by following the Noble Eightfold Path).
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression:[note 1] we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying"[web 1] and painful.[web 1][web 2] This craving keeps us caught in samsara,[note 2] the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, and the dukkha that comes with it.[note 3] There is, however, a way to end this cycle,[note 4] namely by attaining nirvana, cessation of craving, whereafter rebirth and associated dukkha will no longer arise again.[note 5] This can be accomplished by following the eightfold path,[note 1] restraining oneself, cultivating discipline, and practicing mindfulness and meditation.